Friday, 20 January 2012

Interview Questions 2

Q. 51: What is Parallel Testing?
Parallel testing involves testing multiple products or sub-components simultaneously. A parallel test station typically shares a set of test equipment across multiple test sockets, but, in some cases, it may have a separate set of hardware for each unit under test (UUT).
The majority of nonparallel test systems test only one product or sub-component at a time, leaving expensive test hardware idle more than 50 percent of the test time. Thus, with parallel testing, you can increase the throughput of manufacturing test systems without spending a lot of money to duplicate and fan out additional test systems.
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Q. 52: What is Comparison Testing?
Comparison testing is testing that compares software weaknesses and strengths to those of competitors' products.
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Q. 53: What is Probe Testing?

It is almost same as Exploratory testing. It is a creative, intuitive process. Everything testers do is optimized to find bugs fast, so plans often change as testers learn more about the product and its weaknesses.
Session-based test management is one method to organize and direct exploratory testing. It allows us to provide meaningful reports to management while preserving the creativity that makes exploratory testing work. This page includes an explanation of the method as well as sample session reports, and a tool we developed that produces metrics from those reports.
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Q. 54: What questions you would ask to yourself while deciding to automate the tests?
Best approach would be to raise the following questions:
1) Automating this test and running it once will cost more than simply running it manually once. How much more?
2) An automated test has a finite lifetime, during which it must recoup that additional cost. Is this test likely to die sooner or later? What events are likely to end it?
3) During its lifetime, how likely is this test to find additional bugs (beyond whatever bugs it found the first time it ran)? How does this uncertain benefit balance against the cost of automation?
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Q. 55: What do we lose with Automation compared to Manual Testing?
Creating an automated test is usually more time-consuming & costly than running it once manually. The cost differential varies, depending on the product and the automation style.
1) If the product is being tested through a GUI and your automation style is to write scripts that drive the GUI, an automated test may be several times as expensive as a manual test.
2) If you use a GUI capture / replay tool that tracks your interactions with the product and builds a script from them, automation is relatively cheaper. It is not as cheap as manual testing, though, when you consider the cost of recapturing a test from the beginning after you make a mistake, the time spent organizing and documenting all the files that make up the test suite, the aggravation of finding and working around bugs in the tool, and so forth. Those small "in the noise" costs can add up surprisingly quickly.
3) If you’re testing a compiler, automation might be only a little more expensive than manual testing, because most of the effort will go into writing test programs for the compiler to compile. Those programs have to be written whether or not they’re saved for reuse.
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Q. 56: What is the difference between Structural testing & functional testing?
Structural testing examines how the program works, taking into account possible pitfalls in the structure and logic.
Functional testing examines what the program accomplishes, without regard to how it works internally.
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Q. 57: What is the difference between code coverange analysis & test coverage analysis?
Both these terms are similar. Code coverage analysis is sometimes called test coverage analysis. The academic world generally uses the term "test coverage" whereas the practitioners use the term "code coverage".
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Q. 58: What are the basic assumptions behind coverage analysis?
Following assumptions tell us about the strengths and limitations of coverage analysis technique.
1) Bugs relate to control flow and you can expose Bugs by varying the control flow. For example, a programmer wrote "if (c)" rather than "if (!c)".
2) You can look for failures without knowing what failures might occur and all tests are reliable, in that successful test runs imply program correctness. The tester understands what a correct version of the program would do and can identify differences from the correct behavior.
3) Other assumptions are achievable specifications, no errors of omission, and no unreachable code.
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Q. 59: What are main advantages of statement coverage metric of software testing?
1) The main advantage of statement coverage metric is that it can be applied directly to object code and does not require processing source code. Usually the performance profilers use this metric.
2) Bugs are evenly distributed through code; therefore the percentage of executable statements covered reflects the percentage of faults discovered.

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Q. 60: What are the drawbacks of statement coverage metric of software testing?
1) It is insensitive to some of the control structures.
2) It does not report whether loops reach their termination condition - only whether the loop body was executed. With C, C++, and Java, this limitation affects loops that contain break statements.
3) It is completely insensitive to the logical operators (|| and &&).
4) It cannot distinguish consecutive switch labels.
Q. 61: What are advantages & drawbacks of decision coverage metric of software testing?
Decision coverage has the main advantage of simplicity & is free from many problems of statement coverage.
Disadvantage of decision coverage is that this metric ignores branches within boolean expressions which occur due to short-circuit operators.
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Q. 62: What is multiple condition coverage metric of software testing?
Multiple condition coverage reports whether every possible combination of boolean sub-expressions occurs. 100% multiple condition coverage implies 100% condition determination coverage.
Drawback of this metric is that it becomes tedious to find out the minimum number of test cases required, especially for very complex boolean expressions. Another drawback of this metric is that the number of test cases required can vary to a large extent among various conditions having similar complexity.
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Q. 63: What are advantages & drawbacks of path coverage metric of software testing?
Advantages are:
1) Path coverage requires extremely thorough testing.
Disadvantages are:
1) Since loops introduce an unbounded number of paths, this metric considers only a limited number of looping possibilities.
2) The number of paths is exponential to the number of branches. For example, a function containing 10 if-statements has 1024 paths to test. Adding just one more if-statement doubles the count to 2048.
3) Many paths are impossible to exercise due to relationships of data.
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Q. 64: What is the best sequence of coverage goals as implementation strategy
1) Invoke at least one function in 90% of the source files (or classes).
2) Invoke 90% of the functions.
3) Attain 90% condition/decision coverage in each function.
4) Attain 100% condition/decision coverage.
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Q. 65: What is configuration Management?
Configuration Management is a discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item, control changes to those characteristics, record and report change processing and implementation status, and verify compliance with specified requirements.
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Q. 66: What is "Key Word Driven" or "Test Plan Driven" Method of Testing?
This method uses the actual Test Case document developed by the tester using a spreadsheet containing special "Key-Words".
In this method, the entire process is data-driven, including functionality. The Key Words control the processing.
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Q. 67: Is the tool going to replace the testers any day?
This is not even remotely true. The automated testing tool is just another tool that will allow testers to do their jobs better by:
1) Performing the boring-type test cases that they now have to do over and over again
2) Freeing up some of their time so that they can create better, more effective test cases
The testers are still going to perform tests manually for specific application changes. Some of these tests may be automated afterward for regression testing.
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Q. 68: What is Automated Testing?
"Automated Testing" is automating the manual testing process currently in use. This requires that a formalized "manual testing process" currently exists in your company. "Automated Testing" process includes:
1) Detailed test cases, including predictable "expected results", which have been developed from Business Functional Specifications and Design documentation.
2) A standalone Test Environment, including a Test Database that is restorable to a known constant, such that the test cases are able to be repeated each time there are modifications made to the application.
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Q. 69: What is the purpose of Automated Test Tools?
The real use and purpose of automated test tools is to automate regression testing.
This means that we must have or must develop a database of detailed test cases that are repeatable, and this suite of tests is run every time there is a change to the application to ensure that the change does not produce unintended consequences.
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Q. 70: What is a Traceability Matrix?
Traceability means that we would like to be able to trace back and forth how and where any work product fulfills the directions of the preceding product.
The matrix deals with the where, while the how we have to do ourselves, once we know the where.
Q. 71: What is a Data Flow Diagram (DFD)?
Data Flow Diagram is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. A data flow diagram can also be used for the visualization of data processing. It is common practice for a designer to draw a context-level DFD first which shows the interaction between the system and outside entities.
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Q. 72: What is the Difference between Retest and Regression Testing?
When a bug is fixed by the developer, testing the same bug to ensure whether it has been fixed or not is known as retesting.
Whereas testing the other features of the application which might be affected by the bug fix is known as regression testing.
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Q. 73: What is a Test Scenario?
Test Scenario is a set of test cases which ensure that the business process flows are tested from end to end. They may be independent tests or a series of tests that follow each other, each dependent on the output of the previous one.
The terms "test scenario" and "test case" are often used synonymously.
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Q. 74: What is Statement Coverage In software testing,?
Statement coverage is one of the ways of measuring code coverage. It describes the degree to which the software code of a program has been tested.
All the statements in the code must be executed and tested.
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Q. 75: What is What is Defect Leakage?
Defect leakage refers to the defect Found \ reproduced by the Client or User, which the tester was unable to found.
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Q. 76: What is the difference between Functional Testing and System Testing?
Functionality testing is based on functional requirements of the application whereas the system testing is end to end testing it covers all the functionality, performance, usability, database, stress testing.
Functional testing is the subset of system testing, but both are Black box testing.

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Q. 77: What Is a Test Bed?
Test bed is the environment which is required to test the software.
This includes requirement of Hardware, Software, Memory, CPU speed, Operating system etc.
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Q. 78: What is Latent Bug?
Latent Bug is a bug, which gets unobserved in two or more releases of the application.
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Q. 79: What is Bi-directional Traceability Matrix?
Bidirectional Traceability refers to the Forward and Backward traceability.
Forward Traceability is from requirements to design to code to testcases.
Whereas the Backward Traceability is in the reverse direction, meaning thereby the end product has met the requirements or not. It is quite difficult to achieve the Backward traceability without the help of a tool.
Bidirectional Traceability is the prime expectation of CMMI.
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Q. 80: What is Base Lining?
Baselining is the process by which the quality and cost effectiveness of a service is assessed, usually in advance of a change to the service.
Baselining usually includes comparison of the service before and after the Change or analysis of trend information.

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