Friday, 20 January 2012


What are the drawbacks of data driven test?

I think there are no drawbacks of data driven test...
Data driven test is meant for the retesting with the different data. Then it’s not a problem. Might be the question regarding the drawbacks in implementation of Retesting in WinRunner
We can implement data driven test in 4 methods in winrunner
        1. Dynamic Test Data Submission
         2. From Flat files
        3. From frontend grids.
        4. Through Excel Sheet
We can implement it in four different types. We have four means there are some drawbacks in first methods, the drawback is going to give a need for new methods.
1.      In the first method user intervention is required., it is not feasible to test with large test data.,                
2.      In this user has to sit on and has to enter each and every time.
2. The secod one is flat file -> in this the coding part is going to be tedious
3. Frontend -> always it may not be possible to have data in front-end tables or list boxes or ....
4. This is best method for implementing the data driven test, easy customizable wizard is given for this.

What is the difference between getvar & setvar?

getvar: This function returns the value of a system variable
Setvar: This function modifies the value of a system variable
Getvar ("timeout"); # shows the timeout variable value
setvar ("timeout", 10); # set the timeout variable as 10
How many folders & files are created, when we create a test script in Winrunner?

Five files and three folders are created by winrunner. The files are 1 header file, 1 gui file and 3-script file.
What is installation testing and how is it performed.
Installation testing is often the most under tested area in testing. This type of testing is performed to ensure that all Installed features and options function properly. It is also performed to verify that all necessary components of the application are, indeed, installed.

Installation testing should take care of the following points: -

1. To check if while installing product checks for the dependent software / patches say Service pack3.
2. The product should check for the version of the same product on the target machine, say the previous version should not be over installed on the newer version.
3. Installer should give default installation path say “C:\programs\.”
4. Installer should allow user to install at location other then the default installation path.
5. Check if the product can be installed “Over the Network”
6. Installation should start automatically when the CD is inserted.
7. Installer should give the remove / Repair options.
8. When uninstalling, check that all the registry keys, files, DLL, shortcuts, active X components are removed from the system.
9. Try to install the software without administrative privileges (login as guest).
10. Try installing on different operating system.
11. Try installing on system having non-compliant configuration such as less memory / RAM / HDD.

What is the Unified Modeling Language?

UMl is the acronym for unified modification Language.It is an object modeling and specification language used in s/w language. Using this we can specify, visualize, document and construct intensive s/w systems

What is Concurrent Testing?

Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores.
What is the difference between Adhoch testing,monkey testing and exploratory testing?

Adhoch testing: -
This Kind of testing doesn’t have a any process/test case/Test scenarios defined to do it.
Monkey testing: -
Doesn’t have any fixed methology of testing. Just be a randy user of the system. Just try any random combination. Disctructive testing
Exploratory testing: -
This testing is involved with the exploring the product under testing. Constructive testing. Try to explore the product to see how the products behave.
ExploiratoryTesting: when ever modules are complex at that we split the modules in to small modules and covering testing on that modules level by level is called Exploratory testing.
Generally exploratory testing will conduct after system testing
if the testing period is decreased from 9 months to 2 months due to client requirement,how will you go about testing & cover the maximum coverage

If we have very short period for testing the application, tester will follow adhohoc methods (his own methods) to test that application.
I.e. Without using test plan and without preparing test case document he will tests that application by focusing on major functionalities.
Tester will use his own knowledge and experience to cover maximum coverage.
What are the points to check in web testing?...
While performing WEB Testing following features are required to be test: -
1.Functionality testing- testing the functional points of the application.
2.Link Testing- whether the link is redirecting the user to expected page.
3.Testing for Orphan pages- pages that are not linked.
4.Look and feel of the application with different browsers, resolutions etc.
What is the difference between the web testing and GUI testing
Webtesting is Server side testing and GUI Testing is Client Side Testing

What is Negative Testing

Testing the application for fail conditions
What are two primary goals of testing?
There are 3 goals: Verification, Error-Detection & Validation.
However, since Validation & Error Detection have the same purpose, so they can be combined as one.

Given an example for High severity and Low Priority?
High Priority and Low severity??

1] High Severity And Low Priority----If there is an application, if that application crashes after mulple use of any functionality (exa--save Button use 200 times then that application will crash)
Means High Severity because application chrashed but Low Priority because no need to debug right now you can debug it after some days.
2] High Priority And Low Severity---- If any Web site say "Yahoo" now if the logo of site "Yahoo" spell s "Yho" ----Than Priority is high but severity is low.
Because it effect the name of site so important to do quick ---Priority
But it is not going to crash because of spell change so severity lows.
How to identify memory leakage’s after the build is given to you?

This can be done by doing volume testing i.e. Application tries to retrieve large amount of data that require large temporary buffer area. If the data exceed the buffer area the situation of memory leakage will occur and query will fail without returning any result as sorting didn’t got finished as buffer exceeds the limit.

what is the difference between test matrix and test metrix?
Test matrix: Tester will write test matrix in test specification document which keep track of testing flow, testing type and test cases activities etc.
Test Metrix: This will define the scale up to what level of testing can be achieved by doing particular testing on application in the scale of 100% testing meter?
What is the exact different between CMM and CMMi?

The new integrated model (CMMI) uses Process Areas (known as PAs) which are different to the previous model, and covers as well systems as software processes, rather than only software processes as in the SW-CMM

What is Testing Techniques?

Black Box and White Box are testing types and not testing techniques.
Testing techniques are as follows:-
The most popular Black box testing techniques are:-
  • Equivalence Partitioning.
  • Boundary Value Analysis.
  • Cause-Effect Graphing.
  • Error-Guessing.
The White-Box testing techniques are: -
  • Statement coverage
  • Decision coverage
  • Condition coverage
  • Decision-condition coverage
  • Multiple condition coverage
  • Basis Path Testing
  • Loop testing
  • Data flow testing
What is the difference between usecase and test ca...
A usecase is a:
A highlevel scenario where you specify the functionality of the application from a business perspective.
Whereas a testcase is:
The implementation of the highlevel scenario(usecase) wherein one gives detailed and step-by-step account of procedures to test a particular functionality of the application. Things get lot technical here.

What is CMM level

The Capability Maturity Model for Software describes the principles and practices underlying software process maturity and is intended to help software organizations improve the maturity of their software processes in terms of an evolutionary path from ad hoc, chaotic processes to mature, disciplined software processes. The CMM is organized into five maturity levels:
1) Initial. The software process is characterized as ad hoc, and occasionally even chaotic. Few processes are defined, and
Success depends on individual effort and heroics.
2) Repeatable. Basic project management processes are established to track cost, schedule, and functionality. The
Necessary process discipline is in place to repeat earlier successes on projects with similar applications.
3) Defined. The software process for both management and engineering activities is documented, standardized, and integrated into a standard software process for the organization. All projects use an approved, tailored version of the organization's standard software process for developing and maintaining software.
4) Managed. Detailed measures of the software process and product quality are collected. Both the software process and products are quantitatively understood and controlled.
5) Optimizing. Continuous process improvement is enabled by quantitative feedback from the process and from piloting innovative ideas and technologies
During the password field-testing. What should be the focus (give answer in one word)

1. Password should be in encrypted form
2. The field can not be copied either by right clicking of the mouse or by ctrl+c option
What is the difference of approach for Testing Client/server and webappications
In case of web based testing we have test web browser and pages
But in case of client server testing we test icon of application
Client- server applications: Application is loaded at the server. In every client machine, an exe is loaded to call this application.
Web Based application: Application is loaded at the server.but; No exe is installed at the client machine. We have to call the application through browser.
Web app: is a three-tier application
Browser- viaTCP/IP---->server--viaDSN-->DBserver
Client/server is two-tier application
Client------vaiDSN---> DBserver
While Testing the Web Browser we need to take care of Security, Usability, Performance and URL links.
Web application is internationally so security is ver important here.
Where as Client server we don’t need security at high level, it is two tiers and only defined users use it.
How to test Browser compatibility testing
Testing the application with multiple browsers (i.e. IE, Netscape navigator, Mozilla Firefox etc) is called browser compatibility testing

Without using guimap editor? We can recognise the application in winrunner

Yes, we can recognize the application in WinRunner. By hardcoding the properties of the object in the TSL winrunner can be able to recognize the object even though GUI Map Editor learned it.
For e.g. consider an edit box is there in Te application and u didn't learn it. Then in the script u should write in the following manner. Suppose the object label name is "username"
edit_set("{class: edit, MSW Class: ........,label:username}");
Nothing but u should give the whole properties of the corresponding object in the script directly
What command is used to launch a application in winrunner?

invoke_application command used to launch application in WR. See function generator in WR

What bugs are mainly come in webtesting

The bug that mainly comes in web testing are cosmetic bugs on web pages, field validation related bugs and also the bugs related to scalability, throughput and response time for web pages.
END-TO-END Testing:
In end-To-End test, we have to make sure that the entire functional path is exercised so that the software path for this function is tested from this end to the other end,
Explain the complete working of defect/bug life cycle...

The duration or time span between the first time bug is found (‘New’) and closed successfully (status: ‘Closed’), rejected, postponed or deferred is called as ‘Bug/Error Life Cycle’.

(Right from the first time any bug is detected till the point when the bug is fixed and closed, it is assigned various statuses which are New, Open, Postpone, Pending Retest, Retest, Pending Reject, Reject, Deferred, and Closed. For more information about various statuses used for a bug during a bug life cycle, you can refer to article ‘Software Testing – Bug & Statuses Used During A Bug Life Cycle’)

There are seven different life cycles that a bug can passes through:

< I > Cycle I:
1) A tester finds a bug and reports it to Test Lead.
2) The Test lead verifies if the bug is valid or not.
3) Test lead finds that the bug is not valid and the bug is ‘Rejected’.

< II > Cycle II:
1) A tester finds a bug and reports it to test lead.
2) The Test lead verifies if the bug is valid or not.
3) The bug is verified and reported to development team with status as ‘New’.
4) The development leader and team verify if it is a valid bug. The bug is invalid and is marked with a status of ‘Pending Reject’ before passing it back to the testing team.
5) After getting a satisfactory reply from the development side, the test leader marks the bug as ‘Rejected’.

< III > Cycle III:
1) A tester finds a bug and reports it to Test Lead.
2) The Test lead verifies if the bug is valid or not.
3) The bug is verified and reported to development team with status as ‘New’.
4) The development leader and team verify if it is a valid bug. The bug is valid and the development leader assigns a developer to it marking the status as ‘Assigned’.
5) The developer solves the problem and marks the bug as ‘Fixed’ and passes it back to the Development leader.
6) The development leader changes the status of the bug to ‘Pending Retest’ and passes on to the testing team for retest.
7) The test leader changes the status of the bug to ‘Retest’ and passes it to a tester for retest.
8) The tester retest the bug and it is working fine, so the tester closes the bug and marks it as ‘Closed’.

< IV > Cycle IV:
1) A tester finds a bug and reports it to test lead.
2) The Test lead verifies if the bug is valid or not.
3) The bug is verified and reported to development team with status as ‘New’.
4) The development leader and team verify if it is a valid bug. The bug is valid and the development leader assigns a developer to it marking the status as ‘Assigned’.
5) The developer solves the problem and marks the bug as ‘Fixed’ and passes it back to the Development leader.
6) The development leader changes the status of the bug to ‘Pending Retest’ and passes on to the testing team for retest.
7) The test leader changes the status of the bug to ‘Retest’ and passes it to a tester for retest.
8) The tester retest the bug and the same problem persists, so the tester after confirmation from test leader reopens the bug and marks it with ‘Reopen’ status. And the bug is passed back to the development team for fixing.

< V > Cycle V:
1) A tester finds a bug and reports it to Test Lead.
2) The Test lead verifies if the bug is valid or not.
3) The bug is verified and reported to development team with status as ‘New’.
4) The developer tries to verify if the bug is valid but fails in replicate the same scenario as was at the time of testing, but fails in that and asks for help from testing team.
5) The tester also fails to re-generate the scenario in which the bug was found. And developer rejects the bug marking it ‘Rejected’.

< VI > Cycle VI:
1) After confirmation that the data is unavailable or certain functionality is unavailable, the solution and retest of the bug is postponed for indefinite time and it is marked as ‘Postponed’.

< VII > Cycle VII:
1) If the bug does not stand importance and can be/needed to be postponed, then it is given a status as ‘Deferred’
What is the different between test log and test report?

Testreport -----during test execution testengg are reporting mismatches to development team in an IEEE format that is called testreport
Testlog------expected output be called testlog, which is in the form of document.
What are six sigma standards how many types are there

Six Sigma has now grown beyond defect control. It can be defined as a methodology to manage process variations that cause defects, defined as unacceptable deviation from the mean or target; and to systematically work towards managing variation to eliminate those defects. The objective of Six Sigma is to deliver world-class performance, reliability, and value to the end customer
Six Sigma has two key methodologies – DMAIC and DMADV. DMAIC is used to improve an existing business process. DMADV is used to create new product designs or process designs in such a way that it results in a more predictable, mature and defect free performance. Sometimes a DMAIC project may turn into a DFSS project because the process in question requires complete re-design to bring about the desired degree of improvement.

Basic methodology consists of the following five phases:
• Define formally define the process improvement goals that are consistent with customer demands and enterprise strategy.
• Measure to define baseline measurements on current process for future comparison. Map and measure process in question and collect required process data.
• Analyze to verify relationship and causality of factors. What is the relationship? Are there other factors that have not been considered?
• Improve optimize the process based upon the analysis using techniques like Design of Experiments.
• Control setup pilot runs to establish process capability, transition to production and thereafter continuously measure the process and institute control mechanisms to ensure that variances are corrected before they result in defects.

Basic methodology consists of the following five phases:
• Define formally define the goals of the design activity that are consistent with customer demands and enterprise strategy.
• Measure identify CTQs, product capabilities, production process capability, risk assessment, etc.
• Analyze develop design alternatives, create high-level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design.
• Design develop detail design, optimize design, and plan for design verification. This phase may require simulations.
• Verify design, setup pilot runs, implement production
process and hand over to process owners. This phase may also require simulations.
What is the difference between release notes for bugs and instruction notes for enhancements?
Hi Release note bugs: Bugs fixed for this particular release Instruction notes for enhancements: It depends up on the release notes bugs, which are bugs are going to be enhanced for next release

What is a showstopper?

Show Stopper is a condition (Bug) where a tester could not go for further testing unless and until that bug is fixed. In this case as a tester we send urgent request to development team to fix the bug.
What is Traceability Matrix ? Who prepares this do...
Is a document which is used for map the requirements and Test cases.

Test Lead

What is the role of QA in a company

Responsibilities of a QA Engineer
− Understand project requirements.
− Prepare / Update the Test case document for testing of the application from all aspects.
− Prepare the test setup.
− Deploy the build in the required setup.
− Conduct the Testing including Smoke, Sanity, and Bug Bash / Execute the Test cases.
− Update the Test Result document.
− Attend the Regular client calls.
− Log / File the defects in Defect tracking tool / Bug Report.
− Verify defects.
− Discuss doubts/queries with Development Team / Client.
− Conduct internal training’s on various products
what are the bug and testing metrics
Bug is an error that comes during development.testmetrics A document showing the relation ship between test requirements and test cases.
For a bug with high severity can we give the priority also to be high...If so why we need both?For example
severity=1 and priority=1...Cant we have only priority/severity??

Severity: How bad the bug is and its influence on the software and the customer.
Priority: How important it is to fix the bug and when should it be fixed.
So for e.g.: System Crash.It has severity 1 and priority 1.... Since unless and until the system is up we cannot proceed ahead...
How would you differentiate between..
Bug and Defect and Failure and Error.

Error - Found problem in coding By Developer
Bug - Found problem in application By Tester
Defect - Found problem in application By Customer after release
A failure is the misbehavior of some program or process, which results in the AUT encountering a set of fault conditions.
                What certifications are available in testing???
The best certification in testing till date is the CSTE, that is Certified Software Test Engineer.

Is there any difference between Smoke Testing & Sanity Testing ?

Smoke testing is performed to make sure the basic appln functionality is working.whereas sanity testing is to see the appln is not broken (e.g. patch testing)

What is difference between Authentication and Authorization?

Authentication-->checking the validity. Ex: A creditcard validation by Verisign.It is called authenticating the creditcard

Authorization-->Giving some rights -ex. Authorize Mr. Rahul to sign some papers related with my bank accounts

What is visual source safe?

Is a configuration tool in which all the project related documents are placed, each time when you want to update we checkout the things to outside folder and after completion of updates we check in the documents in to the vss
When should testing start in a project? Why?
Functionality of the product depends on coding & coding is done according to the requirements.if the requirements aren’t clear, the resultant product is not a quality product. Hence testing starts right from the requirements.once the requirements are done feasibility study is made...on design, functional specs
What does configuration management mean?
The purpose of the configuration management is maintain the integrity of work products means coding, templates forms (projects related information) etc....maintain in one central VSS CVS etc..
Whenever we Modify/change the documents or coding automatically version will be changed in version management tool (Vss).
how will we prepare test cases
by using docs ,like BRS,CRS ,SRS(through requirements) we prepare usecases
by using usecases we prepare testcases

How can we write a good test case?

Suspect the functionality of the application; try to break its functionality in all possible ways
How will you check that your test cases covered all the requirements

By Traceability Matrix
How will be the testcases for product testing ....
Product Testing should consider the following
1) Operating Systems: -What the SRS refers to with respect to the operating systems on which the Product should work
2) Load Testing - What is the expected Database load that can be carried with optimum efficiency with reference to SRS
3) Performance Testing: -Form load time with minimum and maximum databases loads of varying strengths
4) Machine Configurations: -Different machine configurations on which the product should be designed for with reference to the SRS
5) Exe installations from CD \ Floppy \ Pen Drives \ Internet lines or any other method as asked for in SRS
6) License Checks – Number of licenses applied for or allowed as per SRS
7) Multi User checks – Depending on the SRS check for mutli user \ single user testing
Client Server Applications: - Check how many users “Clients” can be created and run successfully

What is scenario and end to end scenario

Scenario: It is the terminology we are using for doing the testing. It comes like subject to context while we are doing testing.
E2E: This the one type of testing to do the testing for the application point to point (target reaching)

How to find out the length of the edit box through

We can find the length of the edit box using the
edit_get_row_length ( edit, row, out_length );
edit: The logical name of the edit object.
row The row to measure.
out_length The output variable that stores the number of characters in the row.
edit_get_row_length ("Agent Name:", 0, row_len);

Given an yahoo application how many test cases u can write

First we need requirements of the yahoo application.
I think test cases are written against given requirements.So for any working webapplication or new application, requirements are needed to prepare testcases.The number of testcases depends on the requirements of the application

What are the Differences between winrunner Versions 7.6 to 8.0 or 8.2

Winrunner 8.0 supports for Netscape 7.x
Supports for windows 2003
Supports for powerbuilder
More printing options
Advance function viewer window
Winrunner 8.2 version supports only sap and multi media
This is only version support sap application
What is the difference between GUI MAP and GUI MAP File?
GUI MAP: contains GUI MAP Files
GUI MAP FILE: 1.Global gui map file 2.gui map file per test
What Naming Convention have you followed while naming your Automated Test Scripts?

Test type + Project Name + Version Number + Module name + Test script Function .
For example:
Test type = UAT
Project Name = MHE
Version of the Project = 3.2
Module Name = Upload
Function Name = Excel_File
So the entire file name would be UAT_MHE_3.2_Upload_Excel_File
Describe some problem that you had with automating testing tool.
The problem of winrunner identifying the third party controls like infrgistics control.
We Can't Insert checkpoints while Working with PDF files....

What skills needed to be a good test automator?

Good knowledge of the testing tool he is using. Good programming skill. Good understanding of the functionality’s for which he is going to develop the script. Good interpretation skills of the test results.
What types of scripting techniques for test automation do you know?
5 types of scripting techniques: LinearStructuredSharedData DrivenKey Driven
Does automation replace manual testing?

NO, Automation cannot replace Manual, because we write the script to test the functionality positively,(We can write the scripts for negative testing also but it is hectic task).When we talk about real environment we do negative testing manually.
Can we perform the test of single application at the same time using different tools on the same machine?

No. The Testing Tools will be in the ambiguity to determine which browser, which tool opens.

Describe common problems of test automation

The common problems are:
1. Maintenance of the old script when there is a feature change or enhancement
2. The use of the script when we migrate the application from old version to new version
3. The change in technology of the application will affect the old scripts
What are main benefits of test automation?

1) Time--> If we use automation time will be saved
2) We can run the scripts in the night where as if we take manual testing we cannot do this
3) Effectiveness of the application will be improved

Benefits of automation are 1 reliable 2 repeatable 3 reusable 4 programmable 5 fast 6 comprehensive (testing completely)

How will you choose a tool for test automation?

Choosing of a tool depends on many things ...

1. Application to be tested
2. Test environment
3. Scope and limitations of the tool.
4. Feature of the tool.
5. Cost of the tool.
6. Whether the tool is compatible with your application, which means tool, should be able to interact with your application
7. Ease of use

What is the difference between static and dynamic testing?

Actually there are two types of Testing
1.Static Testing:It is the process of verifying Physical Components of system is called Static Testing
Ex: Physical Documents: Testplans, Test Cases or any Project Oriented Documents.In Testing Term it is called as "Verification"
2 types of static testing: Inspection, walkthroughs

2.Dynamic Testing: It is the process of verifying Logical Components of system is called Dynamic Testing
        Ex: Executable Components of System (Builds). In Testing Term it is called as "Validation"
What is sandwich Testing?
It is related to Integration Testing.
There are two approaches in Integration Testing. 1) Topdown Approach 2) Bottomup approach.
Sandwich approach is the combination of both two
What is Purpose of Bugs Found Vs Time Graph?
Its quality metric based on which the QM can suggest the team in the audits for performance measurements.
What is the regular expression in winrunner?
It is used to dynamically changing window labels or values.
While you are executing the script, which contains date field, it will show mismatch. Because recorded script contains different date. By using reg exp. we can come across this
How can we capture dynamically changes in the images

win runner is not supported to dynamically page changes?
What is the difference between ISO, CMM and CMMI?


ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer of standards. Although ISO's principal activity is the development of technical standards, ISO standards also have important economic and social repercussions. ISO standards make a positive difference, not just to engineers and manufacturers for whom they solve basic problems in production and distribution, but to society as a whole.
The International Standards, which ISO develops, are very useful. They are useful to industrial and business organizations of all types, to governments and other regulatory bodies, to trade officials, to conformity assessment professionals, to suppliers and customers of products and services in both public and private sectors, and, ultimately, to people in general in their roles as consumers and end users.

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